Sexual dimorphism in white campion: Complex control of carpel number is revealed by Y chromosome deletions. The role of sex bias in the evolution of sex-determining pathways and sex chromosomes is exhibited in the Japanese frog, Rana rugosa. Other unusual systems include those of the swordtail fish [ clarification needed ] ;  the Chironomus midges [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] ; the juvenile hermaphroditism of zebrafishwith an unknown trigger;  and the platyfishwhich has W, X, and Y chromosomes.
Nam KEllegren H We therefore decided to look for the orthologs in Silene latifoliaof two central genes in meristem function in A. The remaining 61 codons specify the 20 amino acids that make up proteins. This finding suggests that hybrid zones can enable evolutionary processes that would not be possible in a single unstructured population.
Sex chromosomes may be similar in one sex and dissimilar in the other. The reverse transition, from ESD to GSD, is thought to be favored when the environment is unpredictable or not variable enough, in which case ESD could produce strongly skewed sex ratios or intersex individuals .
More generally, selection on the sex ratio can trigger transitions between and among different ESD and GSD systems . Disregarding intermediates, the basic distinction between asexual and sexual reproduction is the way in which the genetic material is processed.
Many species of higher fungi produce mushrooms as part of their sexual reproduction.
Received Dec 19; Accepted Dec There are some signs indicating ongoing degeneration of the areas surrounding the sex-determining locus in papaya. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Any queries other than missing material should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 : —