This suggests that other factors may have mitigated the negative effects of parenting stress on child outcomes. Qual Life Res. The results of this comparative study of adoptive families support the need for more methodologically rigorous research that includes gay and lesbian adoptive parents along with heterosexual parents.
A study Sirota of 68 women with gay or bisexual fathers and 68 women with heterosexual fathers found a statistically significant difference between the two groups.
A study of children conceived through surrogate mothers by Golombok et al. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.
One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Farr, R. Adolescent life satisfaction, like level of attachment is an indicator of youth well-being. Mothers raising their child without a father reported more severe disputes with their child than did mothers in father-present families.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75 4
Lick, D. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75 4 Bos, H. Ball: The social science literature is in line with what our intuitions tell us: Good parents are caring and nurturing, devote time to their children, discipline when necessary and are available emotionally.
Results showed that children were developing in normal fashion, and that their adjustment was unrelated to structural variables such as parental sexual orientation or the number of parents in the household. Bailey, J. The findings revealed that regardless of family type, adolescents were functioning well and those who were closer to their parents had better school outcomes.