One could argue that such pain assays, including temporal summation of pain and tonic pain induced via intramuscular administration of chemical stimuli, may provide more clinically relevant information. Conclusions related to sex-related differences in DNIC remain tentative pending additional studies.
J Occup Rehabil. In: Mao J, editor. Similarly, a seasonal effect suggests the potential role of vitamin D, low levels of which in some but not all studies have been shown to be related to the report of pain.
For example, at a psychosocial level, gender differences in expression of pain are often attributed to the effects of stereotypic sex roles.
Steroid hormone analysis in human saliva. Mouse models now exist to test whether mice of the same gonadal sex either males or femaleswhich differ in sex chromosome complement XX vs. Fillingim RB. Finally, some suggestions will be offered for research that can advance the field toward this goal ie, how we can get there.
Sex and the liver: a journey through five decades. Additionally, standardization across laboratories can be a problem. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article.
Ann Surg. J Neurophysiol. The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the general population of Spain: Results from a national survey. Are sex differences mediated by gonadal hormones? Very few studies have investigated sex differences in chronic pain models such as nerve injury and persistent inflammation.
Post Procedural Pain Surgery and other invasive procedures are accompanied by acute pain, and some surgical procedures confer substantial risk for the development of chronic pain.
Arthritis Rheum , 37 — J Musculoskel Pain. They also report significantly more use of problem solving, positive self-statements, and palliative behaviors [ ].