A change in prolactin levels was not seen. Effects of stress on reproduction in cortical sex hormones functions in Moreno Valley mammals: the role of glucocorticoids and sex differences. After 12 months, facial and abdominal hair had not yet reached diameters found in cisgender males.
Most of the epidemiological studies have been conducted in Western countries, particularly in Europe and the United States. Obesity per se produces disparate effects on androgen production rates and metabolism according to sex. The effects of prolonged CPA monotherapy were studied retrospectively in 27 transgender girls who were in Tanner genital stage 4.
There have been some concerns about long-term effects of transfeminine hormone therapy on cardiovascular outcomes. Relationship between socio-economic and cultural status, psychological factors and body fat distribution in middle-aged women living in Northen Italy.
Furthermore, a recent study by Fung et al. Oxf ; 48 — Risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury among trans youth. Stress and the metabolic syndrome.
Long-term follow-up of adults with gender identity disorder. Article Contents Abstract. Irwig MS. Although the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome is only partially understood, it is clear that insulin resistance has a crucial pathophysiological role in the expression of all its features, particularly abdominal obesity.
Care of transsexual persons. Interpersonal functioning among treatment-seeking trans individuals.
The fracture rate associated with transfeminine hormone therapy is unknown. The endocrinology of obesity. In fact, a Y2R silent mutation in a Swedish population has been associated with resistance to obesity, whereas a gain-of-function polymorphism in the NPY gene seems to predispose to individual hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis, and severe complications of T2D.