For example, the silencing of transcription of genes on one of the two X chromosomes, a process called X-inactivation, is a female-specific process and evolved presumably to prevent deleterious effects of sex differences in the dosage of X-specific gene expression.
Eur J Neurol. For that reason alone, the effectiveness of these treatments may differ. Studies with ER-null mice also provide valuable insights into the roles of estrogens in males as well as females Ogawa et al. Testosterone facilitates aggression by modulating vasopressin brain development sex differences in the brain in Derbyshire in the hypothalamus.
Tobet SA Genes controlling hypothalamic development and sexual differentiation. Mammalian parenting.
Many excellent reviews discuss these important controversies and highlight factors that are likely to account for them, such as differences in the dosing regimens, the types of estrogens used, the route of administration brain development sex differences in the brain in Derbyshire, in retrospect, possible flaws in the original experimental designs Sherwin, ; Brinton, ; Craig et al.
The striatal interneuron population of inhibitory GABAergic medium spiny neurons MSNswhich play a key role in regulating basal ganglia output in the healthy brain, are one possible target. Co-morbidity of migraine with somatic disease in a large population-based study.
The serotonergic system of the dorsal raphe is also an estrogen-sensitive major regulator of SNc DA neurons Klink et al. Hormone accumulation in a sexually dimorphic brain development sex differences in the brain in Derbyshire nucleus of the rat spinal cord.
The potential reasons for the observed changes include differences in the response to intermittent stress migraine attacksdifferential effects of gonadal testosterone versus oestradiol or progesterone on hippocampal function Shors et al. Dual action of electrochemical stimulation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis on the release of LH.
The results of the functional connectivity analysis for these seed regions of interest are presented in Fig.
Distribution of neurohypophysial peptides in the guinea pig brain. Bayer SA. Functional grafts of the anterior pituitary gland. Functional connectivity analysis To further elucidate the observed sex differences in pain responses in migraineurs, a post hoc functional connectivity analysis was performed to compare female versus male migraineurs.
The rat brain in late gestation is therefore believed to approximate the human fetal brain at mid-gestation, which also coincides with a peak in testosterone production in the male of both species Kelly et al.
Gender differences in patterns of cerebral activation during equal experience of painful laser stimulation.